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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  May 8, 2015 5:30pm-7:31pm EDT

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much more affected by the second world war than the first. rationing, intensive bombing destruction of cities. the invitation now goes to the public to lay a wreath. to take part in today's service of remembrance. >> represented by three soldiers wearing they polish eagle allies who served alongside british in the second world war. >> germans, jewish and non-jewi sh loathing the nanzi
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regime, took part in fighting regime. ♪ >> the 19 standards of the british legion. ♪ it is a sign that now we have a sign that the celebration begins. >> the anniversary must bring
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back memories, for those who paid the ultimate sacrifice. ♪ >> on this date 70 years ago peace at last in europe. the most destructive conflict was finally over. shortly, and barriers will be
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removed and the public, having laid there readswreaths, will disperse too. >> germany marked the end of the war with a ceremony. the event included speeches by the heads of both houses of parliament as well as a historian who wrote extensively about germany in the 20th century. this is about an hour and 10 minutes.
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>> federal president, madam chancellor president of the federal constitutional court excellencies colleagues, guests the 8th of may was a day of liberation. when these words were spoken in the address to the german bundestag 30 years to ago today, not the first person to express this, but the first to do with the authority that resides the head of state. it does not reflect broad public
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opinion. but affections were changing, and today, it is the view that was just shared by the majority of germans. the 18th of may marks -- the 8th of may marks the end of a war that was started by the german government. by the end it had claimed more than 50 million lives. including the loss of around 8 million germans. 70 years ago today, the guns fell silent in europe almost almost six years after 2077 terrible days of war. germany's unconditional curator on its total defeat in a war
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the criminal major of most germans had failed to recognize until it was too late. indeed, many were reluctant to admit it to themselves for years afterwards. the vn these -- a viennese writer and later a nobel laureate wrote "it is a measure of the self-delusion in which the germans have been living. the enormity of their delusion the blind power of their belief, which is so profoundly disquieting." and he asked "what is left of them? what else are they without their dreadful military faith? where else can they fall? what can catch them?"
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the germans could not afford a fall in service from grace politically, economically, and morally. so it is more astonishing that despite our country's guilt, -- was broken by other european nations, by neighbors that germany itself had inflicted unimaginable suffering by a community of nations which after the war was not the same as before. our neighbors' willingness to embark on a journey of reconciliation is as unprecedented in history after the catastrophe which preceded it. today we remember the millions of items of a uniquely terrible
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war of annihilation against other nations and people, against slavs and he gets the european jews. the eighth of may was a day of liberation for the entire continent, but it was not a day in which the german liberated themselves. and why would one not to wish to forget the failed attempts by those brave germans who mounted resistance to hitler, today our thoughts and respects are primarily with those who serving with our western allies and in the red army, and national socialist tyranny and suffered unimaginable losses. federal president, i am confident that on behalf of the
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entire chamber in thanking you and also the federal chancellor and the foreign minister for your visits and gestures and speeches, which you have held over the past two days, at memorial sites, and also at concentration camp's. -- camps. during the dying days of the war, the soviet presence in berlin focused energies on seizing the reichstag building. after the fire in february 1943 it ceased to be the seat of parliament under the national socialists for many years. indeed, it did not regain that status for another five decades after the end of the war.
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when this finally became possible at government reunification, we made a concerts -- conscious decision to preserve much of the graffiti that the soviet soldiers had written on the walls during this final days of the war in may 1945 because these are authentic symbols of the end of the war in the chance of a new beginning. ladies and gentlemen the 8th was both he and and beginning also a day of liberation for the war had to end the, of course, before it was possible to make a fresh start with a new opportunity to shape a better future. this new beginning itself -- of war. united nations charter and the project of her come -- overcome
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-- through a union of states contrasted starkly with nuclear standoff in a bipolar war, and with the decades of division of our continent and our country. in the western hockey payment -- occupation zone, the germans learned the lessons of the past. and they then embark on the long road -- doing so separately at first, and in finally together. aptly sums up how the end of war affects the federal republic. it is precisely because the 8th of may that the debate about our past became a painful process of internal liberation.
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but this does not mean liberating ourselves from our history. it means facing up to our -- even when it is difficult to bear. we are convinced that it is only through awareness of our bitter experience that we can shape the present and future and a politically responsible manner, and sow peace and freedom in the world. professor, you pointed out that living at the time of great global political change and that these changes have shaken many of the beliefs that were born out of history and were previously regarded as absolute. in light of these challenges, i wish to thank you for your
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willingness to explain from a historian and active citizen perspective what the 8th of may means for us today. but, first, we will hear the second movement of joseph haydn's street court in c major, a somewhat melancholy theme of variations on a theme long heard throughout the world, not only through his lovers. haydn composed the melody in 1979797, during the french revolutionary war some as a treatment to the austrian emperor, and as a challenge to the marrial spirit of "la maseillaise."
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later, this was written to accompany the melody, voicing an impassioned leave for national unity and democratic constitution. eventful history of this song of germans mirrors the germans' lo ng road west. the long road west encapsulates the twists and turns of the german journey from the hubris of duetschland deutschland uber alles, to the perversion by national socialism and up until
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-- [speaking german] at the guiding principle of a democratic germany one that lives with peace and freedom to its neighbors. we are grateful for this. and we will always remain in debt to our german neighbors and partners for this.
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[haydn's string quartet in c major plays]
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>> mr. president, president of the german bundestag chancellor president of the federal constitutional court embers of the german bundestag excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, in the whole of german history there is no greater watershed within the 70th anniversary we are memory today.
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8th of may 1945. it marks the end of world war ii in europe, collapse of the nazi regime which had unleashed that war, and the end of the german reich. for 12 years, the nazis had fervently evoked german national unity. as the regime that it's and in -- its end in a mountain paralleled for, it would not be clear that germany would ever be unified ever again. in an historic speed marking the anniversary of the german reich's unconditional threatened
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her, the federal president of the day warned the german people not to separate the 8th of may 1945 from the 1st of january 1933, the day went hindenburg appointed hitler as chancellor. he argued that the 8th of may 1945 should however be recognized as the end of the wrong path of german history, an end that contains the seeds of hope for a better future. the wrong path to which the man referred did not begin in 1933. much of the german elite and indeed the society as a whole
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regarded the first german democracy, the weimar republic, as the product of germany's defeat in the first world war. as invited -- embodied as an on german system, during the first world war when academics and writers contrast the ideal of the french revolution of 1789 of liberty, equality, and a fraternity with the german ideas of 1914. that would be the glorification of a strong state with a military as its linchpin, the people's community and german socialism.
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when the parliamentary democracy failed in the spring of 1930 and germany shifted to an authoritarian presidential regime afterward, hitler was able to appear successfully -- to appeal to the widespread hostility to democracy. at the same time, exploiting one of the democratic achievements of the reich now largely robbed of its political effect -- [indiscernible] it had been extended to women as well as men since the revolution of 1890. the nazis' successes cannot be explained without taking into account the long history of german reservations regarding western democracy. signature of the rapid
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popularity that hitler enjoyed after his so-called seizure of power. his popularity reached such heights that in the words of the british authority -- hitler himself became a believer in his own cult by 1936, at the latest. in the course of the second world war, -- was diminished by the war against the soviet union in the winters of 1941 and 1942 and particularly by the defeat in stalingrad by the end of 1943. but it did not die. in fact, it even experienced a brief renewal of sorts. after the failed assassin the
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ation attempt in 1944. now that he believed that hitler might be allied with providence and only he could save germany. in the midst of the -- the final work before his death in the united states in april 1945 just a few weeks before the end of the war german philosopher -- introverted hitler -- interpreted hitler's political career as a sort of triumph of myth over reason, and his triumph, as result of this affair -- of a severe crisis. in politics, we are always moving on volcanic soil. we must be prepared for abrupt convulsions and in options. -- inand eruptions.
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the aggression of forces that resist the rise of the old mythical conception are no longer sure of themselves. in these moments, the time for muyth has come again. for myth has not been vanquished. it is always there lurking in the dark and waiting for its hour opportunity. this hour comes as soon as the other binding of man socialize one reason or other, lose their strength and are no longer able to combat the demonic mythical powers. view of the eruptions of
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xenophobia we have experienced in recent months, and the anti-somatic incitements -- ant i-semitic incitements here and in other countries, there is a truly disturbing relevance today. they warned us to heated the real lesson of german history from 1933 until 1945. it is the obligation to reflect in all circumstances the inalienable dignity of every human being.
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germany's second defeat in the 20th century was a -- and it dealt a far greater blow to german self-confidence than the defeat of 1918. it was not the case that an overwhelming majority of germans suddenly realized victory in may 1945, as a liberation. unlike the people for whom this victory brought liberation from german rule and tyranny, so many germans -- too many germans, the collapse of the regime meant the collapse of their faith in fuhrer, and the collapse of their hopes of a final german victory. the unconditional surrender was initially perceived as a liberation over by those germans who had already realized the
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criminal nature of hitler's rule. in the provisional council -- spoke in october 1945 on the solid there and guilt between the german people. this met with widespread opposition even within the church. one sentence in particular was seen as an inappropriate -- of the assertion of the german collective guilt. "to us, enlist suffering has been brought down by many peoples and countries." the words of all the crimes against humanity committed by the nazis, the murder of around
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6 million european jews was not expressed in this sentence. decades would pass before germany could recognize not only due to the research of jewish scholars [indiscernible] that the holocaust is indeed a central fact of the 20th century german history. at the same time, another realization gradually dawned. the victory that had been won over germany at the men's sacrifice for allied soldiers and not the least over the red army had in a sense liberated
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the germans from themselves liberated in the sense of giving them the chance to break free from political delusions and positions that separated germany from the rest of the democracie sw. in cultural terms, germany had always been a country -- [indiscernible] germany has participated in and played a vital role in shaping the separation of powers in the middle ages, beginning with the separation of -- followed by royal power so as the main support tory -- the e-mail to the tour he -- emancipatory
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processes of the enlightenment. some political lessons of the enlightenment, ideals of the american revolution of 1776, and the french revolution of 1789, the ideals of inalienable human rights, the sovereignty of the people, and representative democracy had been rejected by influential german fleet until well into the 20th century. it was only the experience of the german catastrophe of the period from 1933 until 1945 when german opposition to the western political ideals reached its peak that gradually eroded this hostility. the opportunity that arose after 1945 to build a second
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parliamentary democracy, this time one that would be functional and capable of defending itself was only offered to part of germany however. the western occupation zones which will be later the part of west olympic those germans living in other parts of the country were denied political freedom for 4 1/2 decades. the federal republic's progressive opening to the culture of the west and emergence of a self-critical historical conscience were inextricably linked. took some time journalistic and political debates to drive these
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causes forward. the debate about the german empire's key role in the development which led to the first world war was a great significance in this context. it took time to overcome the still influential apologists and dissertations of german history. and it took time to counteract widespread tendency to regard the german people as hitler's first victims. and for people to observe themselves with any share of responsibility for the wrongs perpetrated in that period. now the memorials in many german towns and cities dedicated to the jewish and other victims of national socialism pacelace
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d by civic initiatives which devote and search the research and history of the local area during the so-called third reich. the process on addressing the war crimes perpetrated by the nazis and choked in the german courts was very slow to get off the ground. to begin with a trial and as late as 1986 public debate which has gone down in the annals of west german history is reviewed among historians.
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this appears about the place in history of the nazi mudersrders on the jews, a downside, which left winston churchill to observe in a letter to his foreign minister on the 11th of june 1944 that there is no doubt, it is the most horrible crime ever committed in the whole history of the world and it has been done by machinery by normally civilized man in the name of a great state and one of the leading races of europe." many germans to travel and long and painful road before they
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could, looking back, that this judgment from a former enemy. but if they had not been willing to face up to the unparalleled monstrosity of the holocaust the murders of tens of thousands of people with intellectual disabilities councils homosexuals -- countless homosexuals, if they have not been willing to accept responsibility for their terrible war crimes minted in the european countries occupied and ravaged by germany how could the federal republic of germany ever have become to respect did member of the international community again? it was particularly hard for the million of german refugees to recognize that their suffering
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was -- of military force and to come to terms -- [indiscernible] however, after the fall of the berlin wall on the ninth of november 1989, this symbolic of evvent a peaceful revolution and the culmination of a series of events stretching back to the founding of the independent trade unions in august 1980, when the german question return to the political agenda, it was clear to the overwhelming majority of germans that there could only be a reunified germany within its 1945 borders. in other words the german
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question could only be resolved another major question, the polish question, was resolved at the same time. that is exactly what happened with the german polish border treaty of november 1990. these two treaties which recognized once and for all and formed binding international law the existing german polish border along rivers. the historic significance of the -- of 1990, the day when the german democratic republic acce eded is summarized at the
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ceremony as follows -- they have come -- the day has come which for the first time in history the whole of germany takes its lasting place in the circle of western democracies. unlike the german reich which met its end on the 8th of may, the reunified germany was destined to supranational organizations such as the atlantic alliance. it is a postclassical relationsh ip which -- [indiscernible] exercises some of its sovereign rights jointly with other member states with supernatural
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institutions. german reunification was only possible because it had credibly broken those paths of its political tradition which had stood in the way of development of a western-style liberal democracy. that was the basis of germany's second chance. as it was -- in july 1990, [indiscernible] who was forced to emigrate by hitler. germany is not finished the process of confronting its own past, nor will it ever do so. every generation has their own
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way of understanding the history as contradictory as germany's. there are many achievements in this history not least since 1945 about which the citizens of the federal republic of germany can be glad and of which they can be proud. however, accepting ownership of this history must also include a willingness to face up to the dark side of the past. no one expects later generations to plead guilt for crimes which were committed by germans in germany long before they were born. that said, an essential part of
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assuming responsibility is the determination be conscious of the country's entire history. doubtless whether their forebears did in germany before 1945 or did not emigrate here until later it applies to those who have chosen to become germans or who make that choice in the future. even if germans -- of no longer wanting to remember the guilt
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germans incurred after 1933 and especially during the second world war they would still be constantly confronted the fact that the victims cannot forget this history so he's. the s.s. and the wehrmacht committed crimes in many places, crimes which would never be erased from the people's affected. these include the siege and starvation of leningrad which lasted almost 900 days and cost between 600,000 and 800,000 people their lives. acceptance of the deaths of more than half of these millions of soldier prisoners of war -- the
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destruction of the jewish ghetto in warsaw in 1943 in the systematic destruction of the polish capital after the second uprising in october 1944. [indiscernible] are better known in germany than in serbia. these names too, and there are many more, stand for massacres which still cast shadows today. there is no moral justification for not keeping the memory of such atrocities live in germany -- alive in germany or forgetting the obligation to
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remember these in germany. the same is true of the inhuman treatment of millions of forced laborers particularly the eastern workers, especially the jews, for whom forced labor was almost invariably followed by their murrder. it is impossible to draw lines -- in addition to the forgiving there is another risk regarding how we address the darkest times
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of germany. the danger of the being deliberately raised for political purposes. [indiscernible] prevent an imminent german side or another crime against humanity, there is no need -- on the other hand neither the holocaust nor other nazi crimes or this second world war in general has given germany the right to look away. the nazis' crimes against humanity are not an argument that justifies germany remained on the sidelines when there are compelling reasons to take joint actions in other countries under the international communities' responsibility to protect.
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any instrumental is asian of the murder of the your patient jews come motivated by day-to-day politics amounts to the trivialization of this problem. irresponsible approach to history seeks to fulfill -- facilitate responsible actions in the present. this means firstly that the germans as along themselves to be paralyzed by contemplations of their history. secondly political decision must not be held up to be the only true lesson of germany's past. any attempt to justify a special
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german morality leads us down the wrong path. and on the left, germany does still have obligations arising directly or indirectly from german policy in this period from 1933 until 1945. among the foremost obligations that should be mentioned in this context are the special relations with israel that have developed over the past five decades. yet in europe as well, the nazi era still cast a shadow, a past that will not pass. not only did the german reich under hitler's leadership trip on the national sovereignty and
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territorial integrity of many european countries by entering into the packed and invading poland and attacking the soviet union, it also pave the way for europe's division into two bloc s, one with freedom, one without, a division which lasted 4 1/2 decades. germany has a special obligation of solidarity with countries for self the termination and the peas will let revolutions of 1989 and 1990 -- peaceful revolutions of 1989 and 1990. the 21st of november 1990, just seven weeks after german
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reunification, the chancellor of paris was signed in the french capital. all 34 participating states of the conference on the security and cooperation in europe undertook to consolidate and strengthen democracy is the only system of government of our nation. with europe on the verge of a new era, the signatories, including the soviet union made commitments to settle disputes by peaceful means. they reaffirmed the principles of the helsinki act signed 15 years earlier which included respect for territorial cavity and political independence and a pledge to refrain from the
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threat or use of force. those days with supplies the end of the post-second world war era. it is the date of the signing of the charter of paris the 21st of november, 1990. some of the -- as a new era dawned until 1991 were fulfilled. others were not. the old european occident divided as a result of the agreement reached by the three the u.s., u.k., and the soviet union, at you allalta, has grown together, unlike in 1918, no
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stone of economic -- zone of economic instability has emerged from -- [indiscernible] in fact, most of the region's democracies are part of the european union and the atlantic alliance. however, the addition of a community of peace stretching from vancouver to vladivostok from the great alliance of liberal democracy is not become reality. 2014 marked a major watershed. an illegal annexation of crimea has called into question the principles of the charter of paris. peaceful european order on which the former cold war enemies had once agreed.
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germany is still an ongoing conflict over ukraine. germany has done everything in its power to safeguard the cohesion of the european union and the atlantic alliance. the same time, it has sought in consultation with its allies the rescue as much as possible of the policy of constructive cooperation on which east and west canagreed to after the end of the war. there is one thing which it was an is always essential to bear in mind in this context, and is
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a lesson from german history. our neighbors in east central europe were the victims of german -- soviet aggression due to the hitler pact in 1939 and 1940 and are now our partners in european union and the atlantic alliance. and poland in the baltic republicas will never be given the impression by taking decisions over the heads over which they will pay the price.
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in late may, 1945, just a few weeks after the end of the second world war in europe tomas martin had been an eloquent -- the library of congress in washington. his speech, which he himself said was intended as a piece of german self-criticism contained a sentence that neatly encapsulated the conclusion of his reflection. and i quote. the germans yielded to the temptation of basing upon there in a cosmopolitanism for germany to world domination. by this trait, it became the exact opposite.
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the hegemony of anyone country -- of any one country is the way the unit sees itself. the responsibility for the use and cohesion of the supernatural community. this is reinforced by the responsibility of rising german history. it is rich at times, one that cannot be reduced to the period fof 1943-1945. and let's not make the power of
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-- the transfer of power to hitler inevitable. but it did make those possible. it is both a european imperative and an enlightened patriotism. the third federal president in july of 1969. they are difficult. one of them is germany. but it is our fatherland. [applause]
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cracks madam chancellor, president of the federal constitution court. ladies and gentlemen who witnessed the end of the second world war. professor gunter, the applause
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of the house and as many people throughout germany have been made clear how impressively you have described our country's long road west. even after 70 years, you made it clear what it means to pay tribute to the eighth of may. i want to thank you for this outpouring speech. [applause] the german who won the nobel prize for literature said about the end of the war, and i quote. i knew then that the war would never be over. never. the wound that was inflicted is still bleeding. the wounds which have not healed
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. it the wounds that create obligations for us. they oblige us. for peace, for tolerance. it was the beginning. the end of a tyrannical regime that showed utter contempt for human life and dignity and might save millions of lives and might perpetuate a systematic genocide of our country's history. let me say this explicitly. you were right in pointing out the unique nature of these events. 70 years from drawing a line under this. facing up to and dealing with
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the successful future. it also obliges us from the outset, making clear again and again that in germany, there is no place for those that agitate against democracy. the supplies to extremist across the spectrum. enter the backward looking news report of the national socialist ideology that so civil discord and wreak havoc. it must be curbed with a full force.
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and also with society as appropriate. as time goes on the eighth of may, 1945 has become clearer than ever. the late president also described the different feelings, especially in a generation that actually witnessed that day. there were those for whom the day of liberation did not bring freedom. like citizens of other countries that found themselves under soviet influence.
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having one dictatorship simply replaced by another. it did not apply to everyone. that dictatorship established the basis for a new democratic germany and enabled our country to return to the community of civilized nations. as you pointed out, we cannot claim threats for this liberation. it took internal force. that is why i feel the need to express my profound gratitude today and my respect to those external forces that made such
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sacrifices in order to free us from this inferno. i would like to express my deep gratitude for those that made it possible for germany and on the part of democracy. [applause] the priority would prevent germany from ever being able to unleash another war. the federal system imposed by the allies and proved to be a fortuitous choice.
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they started a new era not only from germany but for centuries europe's great powers. the assertion of powers and interest by territorial extensions. they were routinely deployed as instruments of poverty. a democratic value in human rights if it were to have any hope of success. for this reason, i am deeply convinced that a united europe of the european union were and are the right answer to the inferno. transcending orders.
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balancing beverage interests without warfare and asserting common interest. these are the real strengths of this united europe. [applause] reminding ourselves that this is essential in many of the diverse challenges that this united europe must master. professor winkler, as he pointed out, the conflict between russia and the ukraine, the struggle for a better future. not only economically but all the countries in this community. and the efforts to combat the reasons why people seek refuge in europe. they are just some of the examples of these challenges.
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[applause] ladies and gentlemen, our united europe is no paradise. i know of no other community of nations which offers a better guarantee of human rights peace, freedom, and the rule of law. ladies and gentlemen remembering the events of 1945 and the years that preceded it is and will remain a core task on the german political agenda. as i see it it sends a key message that is surely relevant to all of us now and in the future. in our own country and across the world. the eighth of may is about a
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fundamental attitude that must inform our actions. it is about mutual respect. it is about tolerance and it is about moral courage. every day, over and over again. please rise now for the european anthem. [applause]
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♪ ♪
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[speaking german] >> david cameron's conservative party won a majority in yesterday's elections. his are marks outside of 10 downing street are next on c-span followed by remarks from labor party leader ed miliband and democratic party liebert -- leader nick clegg. both are resigning as leaders of their parties.
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>> i have just been to see her majesty the queen and i will now form a majority conservative government. i have been proud to lead the first coalition government in 70 years and i want to thank all those that worked so hard to make it a success. and in particular, on this day nick clegg. elections can be bruising clashes of ideas and arguments. and people believe profoundly in public service have seen that service cut short. ed miliband rang me this morning to wish me luck with the government. it was a generous gesture from someone in public service. the government i lead did important work. it laid the foundations for a better future and we must build on them. i truly believe we are on the brink of something special in our country.
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we can make britain a place that a good life is in reach for everyone who is willing to work and do the right thing. our manifesto is a manifesto for working people. and as a majority government, we will be able to deliver. it is the reason why a majority government is more accountable. 3 million apprenticeships, help with childcare. helping 30 million people cope with the cost of living by cutting their taxes. creating millions more jobs that give people the chance of a better future. and yes, we will deliver that referendum on our future in europe. as we conduct this vital work, i must ensure we bring our country together. as we said, we will govern as a party of one nation. one united kingdom. that means insuring this
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recovery it means rebalancing our economy and building that northern powerhouse. it means giving everyone in the country a chance of that no matter where you're from you have the opportunity to make the most of your life. it means that for children that don't get the best start in life, there must be the nursery education and good schooling that can transform their life chances. and it means bringing together the different nations of our united kingdom. i have always believed in governing with respect. it that's why in the last parliament, we gave power to scotland and wales and gave the people of scotland a referendum on whether just a in the united kingdom. in this parliament, i will stay
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true to my word and implemented as fast as i can the devolution that all parties agreed for scotland, wales, and north ireland. governing with respect means recognizing the different nations of our united kingdom have their own governments as well as the united kingdom government. both are important. and with our plans, the governments of these nations will become more powerful with wider responsibilities. in scotland, our plans are to create the strongest government anywhere in the world with important powers over taxation. and no constitutional settlements will be complete if it did not offer fairness to england. when i sit here five years ago our country was in the grip of an economic crisis. five years on, britain is so much stronger. but the real opportunities lie ahead. everything i've seen over the past five years and indeed
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during this election campaign has grooved once again that this is a country with unrivaled skills and creativeness. a country with such good humor and such great compassion. i am convinced that if we draw on all of this that we can take these islands with our proud history and build an even prouder future. together, we can make great written greater still. thank you. [applause]
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[cheers and applause] >> thank you for your kindness france. this is not the speech a wanted to give today. i believe that britain needed a labour government. i still do, but the government -- the public voted otherwise area did i rang david cameron to congratulate him. i take absolute and total responsibly for the results in our defeat in this election. i am so sorry for all of those colleagues.
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that bull, jim murphy, douglas alexander, and all the mps and candidates that were defeated. colleagues and standardbearers they have always been and always will be. [applause] i also want to congratulate all of our candidates elected yesterday and will help take us forward as well -- our party forward as well. [applause] i want to thank those people
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that ran our campaign. it was the most united cohesive, and enjoyable campaign i've ever been involved in. i want to thank douglas alexander, lucy powell, and all of you. the incredible team of the labour party. [applause] and i also want to thank the incredible team of labor party members, activists, and all those people that pounded the street. [applause] friends, britain needs a strong labour party. one that can rebuild after this defeat so we can have a government that stands up for working people again.
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and now it's time for someone else to take leadership of this party. i have tendered my resignation taking effect after this day. i want to do so straightaway because a party needs to have an open and honest debate about the right way forward without constraint. it was the best anyone could hope for. i am proud to have her as my deputy. [applause] she will take over until a new leader is elected. i am looking forward to reacquainting myself -- but
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before i do, i want to say a few things. thank you to the british people. thank you to the people who met me on train stations, colleges work laces, and schools. thank for sharing your stories with me. it has been an enormous privilege. thank you for the support. and thank you for the most unlikely cult of the 21st century. [applause] second, i want to address those that voted labour yesterday. today you will feel disappointed. even bleak. but the argument of our campaign
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will not go away. the issue of our unequal country will not go away. this is the challenge of our time. the fight goes on. and whoever is our new leader, labor will keep making the case for a country that works for working people. [applause] i believe in our united kingdom. not just because this is our country but because this is the best way to serve the working people of our country. i believe there is more that unites us than divides us across the whole united kingdom. and all of us in the months and years ahead must rise to the challenge of keeping our country
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together. [applause] finally, i want to say something to my party. thank you. thank you for the privilege. i joined this party at age 17. i never dreamed i would lead it. it has been an incredible force for progress from workers rights to minimum wage. no other party in british politics can boast these achievements. and yes, it will be a force for progress and change once again. the most loyal supporters and amazing people. i am truly sorry i did not succeed. i did my best for five years. now you need to show your responsibility.
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your responsibility, not simply to mourn our defeat but to pick yourself up and continue the fight. [applause] and if i may, i say to everyone. decency, stability and conrad chip that we believe is the way the country should be run. an ability to have disagreement without being disagreeable. finally, i want to say this.
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the force for progress and social justice is never simple are straightforward. change happens. they keep demanding change. we can see they are trusted. i am never going to give up on that cause. i will never give up fighting for the britain i believe in. that fight will always be my fight. i will always be there. thank you very much.
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[applause] thank you very much. [cheers and applause] >> thank you very much. thank you.
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i always expected this election to be exceptionally difficult for the liberal democrats given the heavy responsibilities we've had to bear in the most challenging circumstances. clearly, the results have been measurably more crushing and unkind than i ever hoped or feared. i must take responsibility and therefore i announce i will be resigning as leader of the liberal democrats. the leadership election will now take lace according to the use of rules. for the last seven years, it's been a privilege. a huge privilege for the most resilient, courageous, and remarkable people. liberal democrats are a family and i will always be extremely proud of the grace and good humor that our family has shown
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to the ups and downs of recent years. i want to thank every member every campaigner, every counselor, and every parliamentarian for the commitment you have shown to our country and our path. friends andfriends and colleagues over the years -- disappointing election results for our party. they said this. if his defeat, they accepted it. those words revealed a selfless dignity.
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a rewarding career that knows their love is no less. it was in jordan with a little selfless. there is a time to step up in a time of crisis. we have done something that cannot be undone.
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we have a stronger fairer and more liberal country than it was five years ago. however unforgiving the judgment has been i believe they will judge our party kindly. the service we sought to provide for a time of great economic difficulty. and those policies and dollies that we brought to bear in government. i believe it will stand the test of time. i serve my country at a time where it was an honor and stayed with me forever. those that have granted an opportunity and the responsibility we have been given. of course, too early to give a
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considered account of why we have suffered a catastrophic loss. the one thing it seems to me is clear. liberalism here as well is across europe is not faring well against the politics of fear. economic and social hardship following the cracks in 2008 and the grinding insecurities of globalization have led people to reach for new surfaces. the politics of us versus them is now on the march. it is clear that the constituency north of the border , a scottish nationalism swept north of the border. south of the border, they look
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at what that means. this brings our country -- grievance and fear try distant communities. i hope our leaders realize the disastrous consequences for our way of life. if they continue to appeal generosity and fear rather than hope. in the absence of strong and statesmanlike leadership. they are now in grave jeopardy. it is exactly at this time that british liberalism, a fine noble tradition that believes we
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are stronger together and weaker apart is more needed than ever before. fear and grievance have one. -- won. but liberalism is more precious than ever and we must keep fighting for it. i will always give my support to those that continue to keep the flame of british liberalism alive. on the morning of the most crushing blow to the democrats since our party was founded, it is easy to imagine there is no road back. but there is. because there is no path to a fairer, greener, for your britain without british liberalism showing the way. this is a very dark hour for our party. but we can't and will not allow
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decent liberal values to be extinguished overnight. our party will come back. our party will win again. it will take patience, resilience, and grit. that has -- that is what has built our party before and will build it again. thank you. [applause] >> this sunday for mother's day, c-span presents the children and grandchildren of america's first families. a pay tribute to first ladies and remembering life in the white house with your kennedy jenna and barbara bush, and amo others. here is a preview. >> if you study hoover -- unless
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you study hoover, you won't know that she is the first to invite an african-american for tea. it caused a tremendous scandal. she was the wife of congressman depriest that had been elected from chicago. an african-american couple. it was a tradition that they invited the members of congress his wife to tea. they were progressives and in the context of their day, there would be a scandal or it could be a scandal. they tried to handle it in the right way but decided to go ahead with it because it would be a good move for the country. to make her feel better, my great-grandfather invited her husband to the white house. it was the first time an african-american was invited to the white house publicly. teddy roosevelt had invited booker t. washington, but it was a secret.
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>> the first dinner we had as a family, there was attention -- this tension. they have been there for years and you kind of rotate through. you try to get to know each other. everybody is formal. we are sitting at the family dinner table. and everybody is trying to figure it out and my dad trying to take the edge off looks and sees a wonderful fireplace. he says, gosh, when we used to go to colorado for christmas, we loved to have a fire. one of the people that work there, it must be the president telling us to light the fire. they went over and lit the fire. it had not been used in 10 years. smoke is billowing out. this is your first dinner with the staff.
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the smoke is coming back into the dining room. we are trying to get up and they say, sit back down. don't you just love the fire? he had such a good hard to try to make us feel good. those are my memories. >> a conversation with the children of america's first families. sunday starting at noon eastern here on c-span. >> children and grandchildren that became presidents and politicians. they dealt with the joys and trials of motherhood. the pleasure and sometimes chaos of raising small children.
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and the tragedy of loss. it just in time for mother's day. first ladies looks at the personal lives of every first lady of american history. many of whom raised families in the white house. fascinating women and illuminating and inspiring reads based on original interviews from the c-span first ladies series published by public affairs. it makes a great mother's day gift. from your favorite bookstore or online bookseller. >> as he continues exploring a campaign for president, jeb bush gives the commencement address at liberty university on out-of-date. you can watch the speech tomorrow night on c-span. sunday, the top democrat on the house committee congressman sander levin of michigan will talk about fast-track legislation that would give the
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president more authority to negotiate trade deals. they will answer questions about the transpacific ownership. -- partnership. congressman levin is our guest on newsmakers. >> sunday night on c-span's q&a, former bloomberg news reporter on the war with the white house to the eyes of the people that work there. from the kennedys through the obama's. >> they are an incredible family , members of the family that worked at the white house. i interviewed james jeffries who is the part-time butler that i got to interview. he might still be there right now. nine members of his family work there. his uncle is like the head butler.
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they brought him and when he was 17 years old in 1959 during the eisenhower administration. he is still working there. he was such a skinny little guy that they kept giving him ice cream to eat. it's incredible that he remembers what the eisenhower's were like. a dying breed of person that remembers that. i wanted to pay tribute to these people. >> sunday night on c-span's q&a. >> and just north of washington dc is the national institutes of health. and dr. thomas and soul is the director of the national institute for mental health. what is it that inmh does? >> we are about the science of mental disorders that covers a broad spectrum.
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covers a broad spectrum -- schizophrenia, bipolar depression, ptsd and now we focus a lot of attention on autism as well. there are a series of childhood disorders -- adhd, there is conduct problems that are also very much in our purview. our job is to try to understand what causes these and that develop -- to develop the best approach is to recovery, prevention and cure. peter: how do you do that research? do you do it at the campus or around the country or grants? how? dr. insel: we are federal. so what we exist on is taxpayer dollars. we receive $1.5 billion of taxpayer money each year from congress. all of that goes into the science that we support. about 10% of it, a little bit more of that, is done by a group of scientists at a hospital and clinics that we run in bethesda, maryland at the national institutes of health, but the vast majority, almost 90%, is
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going to universities and companies throughout the country, sometimes throughout the world where we support the very best science to try to help us make progress on developing diagnostics and new treatments. peter: what is the status of mental health coverage when it comes to the afford will care act -- affordable care act? how has it changed over the last couple years? dr. insel: there are couple of provisions that make a big difference. people overlook the fact that in congress -- in contrast to cancer and heart disease and dimension, mental disorders other disorders of young people. 75% of people with the mental and disorder will have onset before age 25. extending coverage to age 26 makes a big difference for people with mental disorders. that helps. another key aspect of this is that there is no pre-existing exclusion. that is that in the past people with mental illnesses could have been excluded from receiving
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insurance coverage. that is no longer the case. but perhaps one of the most important aspects is that, with the labeling of mental disorder treatment as an essential benefit, we see for the first time in this country true par ity. that means the opportunity or the expectation that coverage for mental disorders will be on par with other medical problems. and that has not been the case in the past. peter: dr. insel, what are we not doing that you would like to see the u.s. as a society do when it comes to mental health? dr. insel: well, it's not a pretty picture. for listeners who have someone in their family who is affected by a mental illness, they know what the challenge is today to get either access to care or high-quality care. this is a situation we probably would not tolerate for the
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treatment of other serious medical problems like cancer and heart disease. the fact that many people with a mental illness and of being incarcerated in jail rather than being in the medical care system. that we have a huge proportion of people who are homeless and who are not receiving care at all. the range of difficulties for those with a disabling illness likes different in is ju -- like schizophrenia is hard to put in words. this non-system we have today. in some ways, the system we have 50 years ago where we had a state mental health system including hospitals that provided care, not great care at least provided safety and refuge for people with severe mental illness, had some benefits that were actually -- that we are lacking today in a situation where there is no system. there really is no net for people who have these most disabling illnesses.
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and i need to point out that these are not just -- they are more disabling according to the world health organization that have looked at what causes morbidity and mortality, what are the sources of disability for some 291 health conditions and injuries. a group of neuropsychiatric disorders -- the brain disorders -- come up at the top. they are more disabling than cancer, heart disease or diabetes. they are more costly. yet we are not doing a very good job providing you the access or the quality of care that people with these disorders need. peter: is there any movement to return to the old state hospital system? dr. insel: i do not think anybody wants to rebuild that whole system but the question is really what it is that would work better than what we have today? and other countries have already
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done this. in england, they have developed a very high bar for what is available for psychosocial treatments lik psychotherapy for depression and fore anxiety disorders like ptsd. you can see countries like norway and sweden putting in whol -- a whole network of care systems that are really focused on how do we provide better care in the long run for people with these very severe illnesses? how do we been the perfect suicide? the other gray area of neglect is we focus so much on homicide. there are 17,000 homicides each year in the united states. but there are 41,000 suicides each year. that is one about every 13 minutes. 90% of those are related to having a mental illness. so we have got a highly fatal set of medical problems. in fact, there are more suicides
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than there are deaths from breast cancer or prostate cancer. this is a really serious medical problem in terms of mortality. and there is not much that is being done. we are still at the early stages of even thinking about how to make sure we are making bridges safer so people do not jump off them. or creating the kind of preventions that are possible. one simple example is that we had 760 deaths last year from carbon monoxide poisoning. it is not that difficult to put a sensor on an automobile that shuts off the engine when the carbon monoxide levels go up. we have known how to do that for 40 years, but so far, there has not been the will to make this happen to save 760 people each year in a preventable way by removing one of the sources, or one of the means for suicide. peter: is mental illness reversible?
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dr. insel: mental illness is a lot of different kinds of problems. you can say the same thing about heart disease or lung disease or kidney disease. some of them are highly treatable. some of them are not going to be that treatable. you're going to be faced with a long-term disability. the ones that we look to where where we have very good interventions would be the anxiety disorders, some of the mood disorders, using psychostimulants and behavioral approaches for adhd, a common disorder of young people. these are all treatable. people do well. there are some forms of autism that we are still challenged with for those who have very low iaq and may have no language, we are struggling to figure out what is the cure, what is the best way to help people with those kinds of dairy severe developmental disabilities. -- very severe developmental
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disabilities. for schizophrenia, there are people who many years later are not later, are still not able to work because of the cognitive deficits that come with that disorder. host: we have a lot of callers waiting. let's hear from our viewers. rachel in south carolina. caller: good morning. doctor, i am going to make a statement. i have had a stroke. had a heart attack. i laid in a coma for nine days. the older i get the more my medication -- i am bipolar -- the more my medication seems like it is not working. i am so proud of you to keep trying. we need your help. we do have a little group of men
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and women that do have bipolar. we understand the ups and downs. we are also very spiritual. we understand that we are in the middle before we go down to get into deep prayer. it is a balance but i think god for people like you. i cannot get out of it. i am up one day and down the next but i am grateful you are trying. host: that is rachel in -- guest: thank you, i appreciate those words. what you share with us is the importance of finding other people involved in the same struggle. even when we do not have a cure and we do not have all the answers, we can support each other. these are tough medical problems. there was a time we did not appreciate how serious they are. there is a terrible legacy of blame and shame blaming parents and sometimes those who have the
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disorders themselves. i think we are at a point where we understand these are serious brain issues. ones we are beginning to get a deeper understanding of. but we are not where we want to be in terms of having the best treatments to turn around all of the symptoms and the core problem that leads to this illness. host: john is in phoenix. hello. caller: dr. insel, i want to speak to you about the use of cannabis for schizophrenia and ptsd. i believe there is some science medical science, in alleviating the fear of -- and some different byproduct of cannabis for treating ptsd and schizophrenia. when is the -- what is the national institutes of health doing to explore that -- host: we get answer from dr. insel in a minute. what is your situation?
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are you a cannabis user? do you have issues you're dealing with? caller: i have a brother and other individuals who served in the service and wartime theaters . my brother has schizophrenia and he uses it as a byproduct. it helps him function to come out of his depression. as far as my brother in arms dealing with ptsd, they use it to help them keep out of depression and so that they do not push themselves into anger. in colorado, where it is legal and oregon where they study it more, they byproduct of cannabis proved useful as far as use for schizophrenia and ptsd. i would like to know what the national institutes of health has done or if they have dedicated funds for the study of it. host: dr. insel?
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guest: if i understand the question, it is whether there is good evidence for the use of cannabis or any of the metabolites or products of cannabis for treating serious mental illness like schizophrenia. to my knowledge, there is no evidence from any controlled trial that this is useful. we do have evidence, especially from studies in england, that the use of cannabis increases the likelihood of psychosis in young people who are at risk for schizophrenia. that risk has been described as high as 13-fold. our concern as we look at laws changing in colorado and elsewhere is that the potential is there that of those who may be at high risk would be using it anyway. but in the case where becomes more available, would have a
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greater likelihood of an earlier onset of psychosis. the evidence for that is still unfolding. we need to learn more about that. that may be speaking to a subgroup of people on this whole spectrum of what we call schizophrenia. it is not to say that of that experience will be true for everyone who has a psychotic illness. host: georgia and south carolina, please go ahead. caller: dr. insel, i was calling -- i had cancer, colon cancer about 2011. after that, my wife see a lot of anger issues i was having. i was being impatient with the kids and not acting myself so she brought that to my doctor's attention. he called me in the office and said i was doubly struggling with depression. i told him no -- i argued with
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them. for me, depression are people are those who are bungled up and do not want to get out of bed and are in corners and do not want to bother with anything not anger as part of depression. now, he has me on prozac, a few other medications. around thanksgiving, i did contemplate committing suicide but my -- my question to you is, are you guys studying that in any way as far as with the anger -- like i said, i did not know anger was a part of deep -- a part of being depressed. i go out, play in coach sports, and joy everything. it was having. the other question i had about the cannabis the other gentleman called


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